Fitness Safety

PALEOGENICS® FITNESS SAFETY

General Fitness Safety
Pre-Workout Preparation
Importance of Stretching
Outdoor Fitness Safety
Swimming Safety
Running Safety
Safety Tips for Female Runners
Weight Training Safety Tips
Sports Safety Tips
Food Health & Safety
Fitness Legal Disclaimer
Cookbook Legal Disclaimer

GENERAL FITNESS SAFETY

Once your doctor gives you the go-ahead to exercise, the tips below can help you avoid injuries:

1. Take 10 minutes to warm up and cool down properly.

2. Plan to start slowly and boost your activity level gradually unless you are already exercising frequently and vigorously.

3. Be aware that training too hard or too often can cause overuse injuries like stress fractures, stiff or sore joints and muscles, and inflamed tendons and ligaments. Sports related wear and tear on certain parts of your body — such as swimming (shoulders), jogging (knees, ankles, and feet), tennis (elbows) — are often overuse culprits, too. A mix of different kinds of activities and sufficient rest is safer over the long term.

4. Listen to your body. Hold off on exercise when you're sick or feeling very fatigued. Cut back if you cannot finish an exercise session, feel faint after exercise or fatigued during the day, or suffer persistent aches and pains in joints after exercising.

5. If you stop exercising for a while, drop back to a lower level of exercise initially. If you're doing strength training, for example, lift lighter weights or do fewer reps or sets.

6. For most people, simply drinking plenty of water is sufficient. But if you're working out especially hard or doing a marathon or triathlon, choose drinks that replace fluids plus essential electrolytes.

7. Choose clothes and shoes designed for your type of exercise. Replace shoes every six months as cushioning wears out.

8. For strength training, good form is essential. Initially use no weight, or very light weights, when learning the exercises. Never sacrifice good form by hurrying to finish reps or sets, or struggling to lift heavier weights.

9. Exercising vigorously in hot, humid conditions can lead to serious overheating and dehydration. Slow your pace when the temperature rises above 70°F. On days when the thermometer is expected to reach 80°F, exercise during cooler morning or evening hours or at an air-conditioned gym. Watch for signs of overheating, such as headache, dizziness, nausea, faintness, cramps, or palpitations.

10. Dress properly for cold-weather workouts to avoid hypothermia. Depending on the temperature, wear layers you can peel off as you warm-up. Don't forget gloves.

11. When working out you should not over exert yourself. If you cannot say several sentences back to back, you have pushed yourself too far.

12. For additional health benefits, perform stretching/flexibility activities at least 3 additional times per week for 5-10 minutes.

13. Good stretching routines mixed with yoga or Pilates can be an entire workout by themselves.

14. Moderate-intensity activity is defined as follows: walking at a moderate or brisk pace, hiking, biking 5-9 MPH, light calisthenics. See the following link for more information:

http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/pdf/PA_intensity_table_2_1.pdf

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PRE-WORKOUT PREPARATION

Do not begin any physical training program without first obtaining medical clearance from your physician. While Paleogenics® brand fitness programs outline fitness recommendations for healthy individuals, it is not a substitute for the guidance of a medical professional. Before changing your diet or the way you exercise, consult with your medical doctor.

Before you begin:

Step One: Wear clothing that does not restrict your movement, and fill up your bottle.

Step Two: Hydrate before, during and after your warm-ups and workouts.

Step Three: Whether you are warming up, cooling down, or doing your day's workout be sure to use good form.

You will get more out of your workouts and avoid many types of injuries by using the program properly.

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IMPORTANCE OF STRETCHING

BENEFITS OF STRETCHING:

  • Reduced muscle tension.
  • Increased range of movement in the joints.
  • Enhanced muscular coordination.
  • Increased circulation of the blood to various parts of the body.
  • Increased energy levels (resulting from increased circulation).

For the Body
Stretching, in its most basic form, is a natural and automatic action. Flexibility pertains to the degree of range of motion within a joint. Each joint must reach an optimal range of motion (ROM) to achieve peak performance. Therefore, you must elongate muscles to improve ROM. Staying stationary while stretching is the preferred type of stretching.

Seasoned athletes may not benefit from stretching as much as beginners, but stretching is still essential for everyone who plans to engage in any physical activity. And, stretching without any additional exercise can be beneficial to your overall health.

For the Mind
Everyone has stress. A buildup of stress causes your muscles to contract and become tense. This tension can go on to have a negative impact on just about every part of your body. Like all types of exercise, flexibility exercises such as stretching have powerful stress-reducing abilities. Spending just a short amount of time (10-15 minutes) stretching each day can help calm the mind, providing a mental break, and giving your body a chance to recharge. To get the most out of your stretching routine keep in mind the following:

Focus on Muscles That Need the Most Help
Instead of trying to stretch your whole body, focus on a key area of the body at a time. Spend longer on each stretch and include more stretches for each area. If you are aware that certain muscles are tighter than others, focus your attention on those as you stretch.

Paleogenics® offers a unique from of combined stretching warm-up movements to help maximize performance during your workouts and social fitness. Before you begin your stretching, your muscles should be warm. Complete a warm-up of light walking, biking, or jogging at a low intensity for 8 to 10 minutes. Or, better yet, stretch after the workout when your muscles are already warm.

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OUTDOOR FITNESS SAFETY

One of the best things about warm weather is that you get to take your workout outside. But the great outdoors also exposes you to elements you don't face in a climate-controlled gym—everything from airborne pollutants to UV radiation. Take the following precautions and your workouts will be the best and safest under the sun.

Plain water is fine for shorter workouts

If you'll be exercising for longer than an hour, choose drinks that replace fluids, replenish fluids, and add essential carbohydrates and electrolytes.

The night before a hot-weather workout

Consume complex carbohydrates before your fitness evolutions. The sugars turn into glycogen, which will help your body hold on to its water supply.

Don't count on your clothes

Not all clothing will keep the sun's radiation off your body. Polyester fabrics provide more protection than cotton, and dyed clothing is better than white, but both of those options also crank up the heat. Instead, purchase safe but cool sportswear with extra-tight knitting or sunscreen-treated fabrics.

Using a mirror, check your head for hair loss

Your mane may have thinned, especially at the crown, without you knowing it. Skin cancers develop more easily on the top of the head than any other part of the body. So, if you can see your scalp through your hair, use a gel sunscreen or, even better, wear a hat while outside.

UV rays contribute to all kinds of eye problems

Purchase quality sunglasses to help avoid conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma. Make sure your glasses have both UVA and UVB protection and that they block light from both the top and sides.

Acclimate to hot weather

It's easy to forget the toll that 80- or 90-degree days can exact. It can take a week or two to get acclimated to hot weather. Start with lighter workouts or by training early or late in the day. If you start getting tired more quickly than usual, quit early. And if you get a headache or feel dizzy, get out of the heat right away and drink more water.

Remember that heat stress is cumulative

You're more likely to suffer from heat-related problems if you exercised in hot weather yesterday, even if today is relatively mild.

Re-choose your shoes

Low-top running shoes may be perfect for an indoor track, but once you start hitting dirt trails and rocky pathways, you'll need the support of trail-runner style footwear. If you're traveling on concrete streets or sidewalks, make sure your shoes have plenty of padding or gel support to make up for the lack of "give" underneath.

Do what you can to avoid air pollution

If you live in a city, your local weather report will provide an Air Quality Index or Pollution Standards Index; when ozone or carbon-monoxide levels are over 100, consider moving your workout indoors. Avoid traffic-filled streets so you don't have to breathe vehicle exhaust.

Keep a nose out for allergies

If you're allergic to pollen (symptoms include a runny nose, itchy eyes, coughing and sneezing), plan your runs, hikes, and bike rides away from any fields of weeds. Since pollen counts are highest in the morning, workout in the afternoon or do so inside. Shower well after outdoor exercise.

Medications and Supplements

These items can make you more sensitive to outdoor conditions, so consult your doctor before exercise or diet changes. "Fat-burning" supplements often contain diuretics, which can lead to dehydration; caffeine and alcohol also increase water loss.

Slather yourself with sunscreen

Many such lotions need time to bond with chemicals in your skin; some take as long as 30 minutes to become fully effective. And, bring the bottle with you, since even so-called "waterproof" sunscreens don't last the length of a long, sweaty workout.

A little dehydration raises your heart rate

Dehydration is just plain dangerous. You should drink 16 to 32 ounces of water to prime the pump before you go outside, and bring plenty with you. Be sure to drink regularly before, during, and after your workout, not just when you feel thirsty.

Take extra care when it's humid

Sweat cools your body by evaporating into the air; if the air itself is full of moisture, the mechanism is much less efficient. That means warm, humid weather can affect you as much as or more than hot, dry weather.

Don't do everything at once

Just because you've been pedaling an hour a day on a recumbent cycle doesn't mean you can suddenly bike up a mountain without suffering pain and stiffness the next day. Get used to outdoor activities gradually, and slowly work yourself into more demanding workouts.

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SWIMMING SAFETY

BASIC SAFETY FOR A CASUAL SWIM WITH FRIENDS

Learn how to swim

The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses formal swimming instruction for most children ages 4 years and older. Teens and adults who don't know how to swim should learn to do so and restrict wading or bathing to shallow water only and in the presence of a lifeguard. Look into local programs to first learn how to swim from a certified instructor.

Supervise children

Children should never be allowed to swim unsupervised by adults anywhere. Drowning can happen quickly and silently in as little as 2 inches of water. The CDC reports that most accidental drownings of children ages 1 to 4 occur in residential pools and most of those victims were reported seen within the home less than five minutes prior while in the care of at least one parent. Adults who are supervising children should remain alert, vigilant and never turn away or get distracted, not even for a moment.

Swim only when a lifeguard is on duty

When swimming in bodies of water other than residential pools, swim only when a lifeguard is on duty and in areas designated for swimming. Parents of young children and non-swimmers should carefully supervise their children even in settings where a lifeguard is present. All swimmers should respect the rules for swimming in a given environment and follow the directives of the lifeguard.

Do not swim while under the influence of drugs or alcohol

Even strong swimmers can succumb to the effects of alcohol and drugs while in the water. Being under the influence of either (or both) seriously impairs judgment and coordination and increases the risk of injury or drowning.

Never swim alone

As tempting as it may be to catch some time alone in the backyard pool, deserted lake or ocean, do not do it. Accidents happen even to young, strong, healthy individuals who are good swimmers. Always swim with a buddy in a residential pool and with a lifeguard present in any other pool or body of water.

Do not swim during thunderstorms

Never swim during a thunderstorm. Follow lifeguard instructions for exiting the pool. If swimming in a residential pool, exit the water immediately when you hear thunder. Lightning often strikes water and water conducts electricity. If you swim and lightning strikes, you risk serious injury or death.

Avoid diving head first

Do not dive head first into shallow or murky water, or water of uncertain depth. Diving in shallow water can cause injuries and drowning. Diving into murky water such as ponds, quarries or lakes without knowing the depth or underwater environment is extremely dangerous. Rocks and other objects in the water pose hazards. It is best to enter the water feet first.

Refrain from horseplay in the water

As fun as it is to swim with friends or family, refrain from horseplay such as dunking, hanging on to someone or allowing them to hang on to you while in the water. Horseplay can lead to injury while in the water, thus increasing the risk of drowning.

Use proper flotation devices

The American Academy of Pediatrics warns that inflatable toys, rafts, air mattresses and water wings should never be used as lifesaving devices for children and that only life jackets and life preservers approved by the U.S. Coast Guard should be used. Always wear an approved life jacket when boating, even close to land.

First aid, CPR and pool fences

It is a good idea for adults, especially those who are parents or who care for children, to learn basic first aid and CPR. Rescue measures can mean the difference between life and death, especially for families with residential pools. The CDC recommends four-sided pool fences at least 4 feet high with self-closing, self-latching gates that open outward and are unreachable by children.

Check water conditions before entering

Is it safe for everyone to swim? Are there hazards not immediately visible, such as potential boat traffic? Is the water quality poor or dangerous? Are there any indications that signs could be missing? Could those have been signs warning of a "No Swim" area? Survey the area before you enter and know what to look for.

Have a plan for emergencies

What is your plan should something happen to you or your buddy? Does someone else know where you're going? Will someone be watching from shore, ready to take action in the event you need assistance? Plan for everything and eliminate as much uncertainty as possible.

Understand currents, rip currents, and such

Currents are another variable of open water swimming versus pool swimming. Sometimes you won't know how strong or which direction the current pulls until you get in the water. This topic alone warrants a whole article, but for now, keep the following tips in mind:

  • If it looks quick, it is. Be careful, exercise extra caution, and be smart about deciding whether to get in the water.
  • Ride it 'til it weakens. If you get caught in a rip current—strong columns of water that rush out to sea and can carry a swimmer a great distance from shore very quickly—your best bet is to ride the current until it weakens, then swim out of it, parallel to shore. Once you're past the rip, you can turn and swim back into shore. If you try to fight the current or swim against it, you will lose.
  • Stay calm, be safe, and be aware. Currents happen, and your best defense is to always remain calm and aware.
  • Know your surroundings. Be acutely cognizant of your surroundings. Boats, swimmers, marine life, variable weather and water conditions, and a lot of other elements can threaten your swim. Stay vigilant and get out of the water if you feel threatened.
  • Watch the weather. If the forecast calls for rain or thunderstorms, it's prudent to not swim. That said, meteorologists are rarely 100% spot-on and weather changes frequently. Double check credible weather forecasting services before you swim. If you hear thunder before or during your swim, get to shore and a safe environment immediately. You do not know how quickly a storm might be moving or where it's headed, so remove yourself from the water and take cover.

Basic Prep for an Open Water Race or Event

  • Always be prepared. The more prepared you are, the more confident you are and less likely to be overly excitable. Pack the night before so you're sure to have everything.
  • Be confident. We're all human and despite our feelings that some skills need work or that we're not perfect, this shouldn't stop us from exuding self-assurance. Go for it from the start but stay calm. It's good to remember when you're getting in the water, either by a running start from the beach or an in-water start, to always remain calm. If you enjoy the crowd, then create a positive, confident energy other swimmers can contribute to and feed off of; it makes it more fun for everyone. If you're too nervous or just need to avoid crowds, then do your best to place yourself at a safe distance from the crowd. It might be hard to avoid if you're participating in a race, but remember to breathe and keep calm. Some folks feel more comfortable letting an official or someone affiliated with the race or event know that this is their first race or that they're new to open water. The official or volunteer might be able to offer something that could provide comfort, even if it's a few encouraging words. Some events also rely on "Angel Swimmers" to guide and assist nervous swimmers. They aren't at every race, but ask an official if you can have a dedicated buddy for your swim.
  • Remember to breathe. If you're starting to panic or breathe faster than normal, rein yourself in by taking slow, deep breaths and thinking about something that calms you. If you're in the water when panic strikes, roll over and float on your back until you feel you're ready to engage again. Always keep an eye on land and be aware of your surroundings. You can also look around for a safety kayaker or other support crew and ask for help or a moment to hang on the boat until the panic subsides.
  • Know the drill when drafting. Drafting is permissible in open water swimming, but it can be tricky to do well. You never know if the person in front of you is a good navigator or someone you'd rather not follow. You might catch up to them and get a hello from their foot in your face—ouch! Just be aware of your direction and those around you; it's OK to draft off another swimmer for a bit, but if you're getting too close, pass and move on to your next target.
  • Sight land and buoy targets carefully. Know the buoys or the next point you're aiming for and adjust the frequency of your sightings based on wave and water conditions. If it's choppy and there's a current, then you most likely will have to sight more frequently than if you're swimming in a calm lake or pond.
  • Talk to yourself! Freaked out? Talk through the situation out loud—only the fish will think you're crazy. Sometimes just hearing yourself talk through the scenario gives you insight as to how best to alleviate the problem. You might even be able laugh at yourself, which is the best remedy.
  • Relax and play! Got waves? Keep calm and do your best. You might even consider taking on the persona of a dolphin. But, above all, be sure you're safe. There is nothing wrong with heading back to shore if it's just too much. It's better to recognize what you might need to work on before getting into a situation that can turn what should be a joyous day in the water into a nightmare.
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RUNNING SAFETY

BASIC RULES

Most running safety rules are just common sense. But you see so many runners — both male and female — who violate them every day that a rules review is indeed in order.

Don't wear headsets

When you listen to music or the radio while running outside, you can't hear car horns, cyclists, or, heaven forbid, the footsteps of someone coming up behind you.

"But I love to listen to my music!" is a common rejoinder from those who refuse to give up their headsets. Fine. Wear them when you're running on a treadmill. But when you're outside, especially when you're on the roads, you are simply asking for trouble if you tune out your surroundings.

Run against traffic

A bicycle is considered a vehicle, so it is subject to the same laws as cars and trucks. Cyclists ride with traffic. You are not a vehicle. You are a runner. You are also in a highly vulnerable position if you're running near cars, trucks, and bicycles. So, the best way to prevent an untimely meeting with one of these vehicles is to be able to see them. That means running on the side of the road or on the sidewalk and running while facing traffic.

  • If you run at night, make yourself visible. Wear light-colored clothing and invest a few dollars in a reflective vest, which you can purchase at a local running store or through a mail-order running catalog.
  • Don't challenge cars to a race. If you and a car are both approaching an intersection, stop and let the car go first. (News flash: They're faster than you.)
  • Beware of stopped cars waiting to make a right turn. Stop and wait until they make the turn, or run behind them.
  • Run with others. This may be the easiest way to avoid problems altogether. Sharing the road with other runners is also a great way to stay motivated and to enjoy the sport. You can find potential partners through your running club, your running apparel store, or community bulletin boards at your library.

If you must run alone, a treadmill at home or at a health club is a much safer option. A local track also offers some protection, but not if you're running alone and after dark.

  • Avoid running alone in unpopulated, unfamiliar areas and stay away from trails surrounded by heavy brush.
  • Do not wear jewelry, this can make you a target. But do carry identification or write your name, phone number, and blood type on the inside sole of your running shoe.
  • Always trust your intuition. If you're unsure about a person or a place, avoid it.
  • Carry a noisemaker or get training in self-defense and the use of pepper spray. And, always call police if something happens to you or someone else or if you see something or someone suspicious.
  • Don't stop to give directions to strangers in cars if you are running alone.

Specificity Rule

The most effective training mimics the event for which you're training. This is the cardinal rule of training for any activity. If you want to run a 10k at a seven-minute-per-mile pace, you need to do some running at that pace. Runners are best served by running at goal pace and in the expected environment of that race. However, it's impractical to wholly mimic a race in training—particularly longer distances—because it would require extended recovery. When doing race-specific training, keep the total distance covered shorter than the goal race, or run at your race pace in shorter segments with rest breaks (interval training). If you plan on taking your running efforts to the competitive level seek the help of a certified running coach.

The 10-Percent Rule

Increase weekly training mileage by no more than 10 percent per week.

Runners who increase their training load too quickly can incur injuries. However, if you're starting at single-digit weekly mileage after a layoff, you can add more than 10 percent per week until you're close to your normal training load.

The 2-Hour Rule

Wait for about two hours after a meal before running. For most people, two hours is enough time for food to empty from the stomach, especially if it's high in carbohydrates. If you don't wait long enough, food will not be properly digested, raising the risk of abdominal cramps, bloating, and even vomiting. However, you may need up to three hours after a heavy meal that's high in protein and fat.

The 10-Minute Rule

Start every run with 10 minutes of walking and slow running, and do the same to cool down. This type of warm-up prepares your body for exercise by gradually increasing blood flow and raising core muscle temperature. Cooling down may be even more important. Stopping abruptly can cause leg cramps, nausea, dizziness, fainting, as well as other physical conditions.

The 2-Day Rule

If something hurts for two straight days while running, take two days off. Two straight days of pain may signal the beginning of an injury. Even taking five days of complete rest from running will have little impact on your fitness level. If something hurts for more than several days, even if you've rested, see a doctor.

The Familiar-Food Rule

Don't eat or drink anything new before or during a race or hard workout.

Stick to what works for you. Your gastrointestinal tract becomes accustomed to a certain mix of nutrients. However, eating something new is probably better than eating nothing at all.

The Conversation Rule

You should be able to talk in complete sentences while running. Runners whose heart and breathing rates are within their target aerobic zones should comfortably be able to recite the alphabet. Those who can't are running faster than optimal.

The Sleep Rule

Sleep one extra minute per night for each mile per week that you train.

So if you run 30 miles a week, sleep an extra half hour each night. Sleep deprivation has a negative impact on training. The average person needs 7.5 to 8 hours of sleep, so increase that amount when you're training.

The Refueling Rule

Consume a combination carbohydrate-protein food or beverage within 30 to 60 minutes after any race, speed workout, or long run. You need an infusion of carbs to replace depleted muscle glycogen, plus some protein to repair and build muscle. Ideally, the carb-protein ratio should be 4-to-1.

The Don't-Just-Run Rule

Runners who only run are prone to injury. Cross-training and weight training will make you a stronger and healthier runner. Low-impact sports like biking and swimming will help build supporting muscles used in running, while also giving your primary running muscles a rest.

The New-Shoes Rule

Replace running shoes once they've covered 400 to 500 miles, even if they don't show much wear. When you buy a new pair rotate them for a while. Don't wait until your only pair is trashed. Consider shoes trashed when the spring is gone.

The Hard/Easy Rule

Take at least one easy day after every hard day of training, especially after the most exhausting long runs and speed workouts. If you're 40 or older, wait for two or even three days before your next tough one. "Easy" means a short, slow run, a cross-training day, or no exercise at all. "Hard" means a long run, tempo run, or speed workout. Give your body the rest it needs to be effective for the next hard run. Apply the hard/easy rule to your monthly and yearly training cycles by treating yourself to one easy week each month, and one easy month each year.

Dress for Success

Wearing the right clothing when you're running is important for comfort and safety. Staying warm when it's cold out and staying cool when its warm out can make a big difference in performance, too. If you are not warm enough you may experience muscle contraction, changes in energy sourcing (which is an increase of carbohydrate consumption), and increased lactate production. You can also risk more injury from tight muscles and tendons, etc. If you are too warm you can suffer heat exhaustion. Watch for signs of overheating, such as headache, dizziness, nausea, faintness, cramps, or palpitations.

Check out the following link to see what can specifically work for you: http://www.runnersworld.com/what-to-wear

Change up your daily routine

If you run several days per week, it is easy to slip into a routine, running the same routes at the same time on the same days. This is dangerous because it gives anyone who might be seeking out a victim a way to know where you're going to be alone on a given day.

Here are some ways to avoid this:

  • If you run a counter-clockwise loop around your neighborhood, start switching the direction that you run every few days or so.
  • Try running an hour earlier or later than you normally do and alternate starting times from day to day.
  • Look online for new routes or trails that you can run close to home.
  • Additionally, carrying ID with you and taking a self-defense class won't hurt you (but…it might hurt your attacker).
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SAFETY TIPS FOR FEMALE RUNNERS

SAFETY IS PARAMOUNT

Ladies, we are not asking you to be frail and helpless, I’m asking you to be sensible. You’ve heard it a million times, mostly from my mother: “Never run alone, it’s a scary world out there for a woman, always carry pepper spray with you.”

Here are some guidelines I’ve adopted as a runner and I highly recommend for you:

RUN WITH PEPPER SPRAY

I don’t care if you can run a five-minute mile, you won’t be able to outrun your neighbor’s Chihuahua, let alone a ferocious mountain lion. Humans are not built to outrun predators; we are built to outsmart them, hence, the invention of pepper spray!

I’m not suggesting that every time you lace up for a run you need to tuck that can in your pocket. Heaven knows you probably won’t need it during your run at the high school track (though you may want to use it to fend sophomore and junior boys away from your daughter), but any time that you are planning to run alone in a secluded area that might contain wildlife, lone individuals or hiding places, take it along.

AVOID RUNNING WITH MUSIC PLAYERS

I love running with music, I find it to be the best training partner; it never complains that my pace is too fast or too slow, it is upbeat when I need it to be and shuts up when I want it to. This being said, there are certain times and places when you need all of your senses to be alert in order to stay safe.

These are some situations in which you absolutely should not be listening to music on the run:

  • Alone, at night. When your vision is impaired by darkness, you need your ears to tell you what is in front of you and behind you.
  • On a street or bike path, especially a street with a limited shoulder. If you can’t hear bikers or other runners coming up on you from behind, the results can be disastrous.
  • Near a golf course or any type of sporting event. I know two runners personally that have been struck with balls while running. One lost the sight in his right eye because of a stray golf ball and the other wound up with a bruise the size of a grapefruit on her thigh because of a foul baseball. If a ball is headed your way, chances are that several people will be yelling in an attempt to warn you, and you need to be able to hear them.
  • Any time that cars, dogs, or attackers may be a threat.

BE CAREFUL RUNNING AT NIGHT

Night time can be great time to run, but, like the ocean, there needs to be a healthy fear of night running. Here are some ways to make sure your night runs are as safe are as possible.

  • Headlamps. Yes, I know they look dorky, but they also let cars and other pedestrians know where you are. Also, light reflective colors are a must.
  • Stick to roads you know. I say roads because trails are not advisable for night running due to their uneven surfaces and the potential for ankle rolling. By staying close to home on roads you know, preferably neighborhoods, you are surrounded by homes filled with people that can come to your aid if need be. Also, the last thing you want at night is to be lost on an unfamiliar road with no way home and with possible injury.
  • Cell Phones. Always keep your phone with you at night. There may be times that you’re approached by a sketchy looking group of people/teenagers. You can pretend to talk on your phone while running so they think your communicating with another person and not “alone.”
  • Additionally, never leave the house without telling at least one person where you will be running, day or night.
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WEIGHT TRAINING SAFETY TIPS

Strength or resistance training challenges your muscles with a stronger-than-usual counterforce, such as pushing against a wall or lifting a dumbbell or pulling on a resistance band. Using progressively heavier weights or increasing resistance makes muscles stronger. This kind of exercise increases muscle mass, tones muscles, and strengthens bones. It also helps you maintain the strength you need for everyday activities — lifting groceries, climbing stairs, rising from a chair, or rushing for the bus.

These tips can keep your strength training safe and effective:

  • Warm up and cool down for 10 minutes. Walking is a fine way to warm up; stretching is an excellent way to cool down.
  • Focus on form, not weight. Align your body correctly and move smoothly through each exercise. Poor form can prompt injuries and slow gains. When learning a strength training routine, many experts suggest starting with no weight, or very light weight. Concentrate on slow, smooth lifts and equally controlled descents while isolating a muscle group.
  • Working at the right tempo helps you stay in control rather than compromise strength gains through momentum. For example, count to three while lowering a weight, hold, then count to three while raising it to the starting position.
  • Pay attention to your breathing during your workouts. Exhale as you work against resistance by lifting, pushing, or pulling; inhale as you release.
  • The right weight for you differs depending on the exercise. Choose a weight that tires the targeted muscle or muscles by the last two repetitions while still allowing you to maintain good form. If you can’t do the last two reps, choose a lighter weight. When it feels too easy to complete add weight (roughly 1 to 2 pounds for arms, 2 to 5 pounds for legs), or add another set of repetitions to your workout (up to three sets). If you add weight, remember that you should be able to do all the repetitions with good form and the targeted muscles should feel tired by the last two.
  • Give muscles time off. Strength training causes tiny tears in muscle tissue. These tears aren’t harmful, but they are important: muscles grow stronger as the tears knit up. Allow your muscles to recover before your next strength training session by not doing any exercises that are not prescribed in your chosen Paleogenics® fitness program. It is very important that you do not ever do it.

*Remember always tweak your program to fit your individual needs. If a certain exercise is overly difficult don’t do it, or if you don’t not like a particular exercise don’t do it.

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SPORTS SAFETY TIPS

Sports can help us keep our bodies fit and feel good about ourselves. However, there are some important injury prevention tips that can help promote a safe, optimal sports experience.

Injury Risks

All sports have a risk of injury. In general, the more contact in a sport, the greater the risk of a traumatic injury. However, many injuries are due to overuse.

Most frequent sports injuries are sprains (injuries to ligaments) strains (injuries to muscles), and stress fractures (injury to bone) caused when an abnormal stress is placed on tendons, joints, bones and muscle. Tenderness over a bone should be evaluated further by a medical provider even if there is minimal swelling or limitation in motion.

To reduce the risk of injury:

  • Take time off. Plan to have at least 1 day off per week and at least one month off per year from training for a particular sport to allow the body to recover.
  • Wear the right gear. Players should wear appropriate and properly fit protective equipment such as pads (neck, shoulder, elbow, chest, knee, shin), helmets, mouthpieces, face guards, protective cups, and/or eyewear. you should also not assume that protective gear will prevent all injuries while performing more dangerous or risky activities.
  • Strengthen muscles. Conditioning exercises during practice strengthens muscles used in play.
  • Increase flexibility. Stretching exercises after games or practice can increase flexibility. Stretching should also be incorporated into a daily fitness plan.
  • Use the proper technique. This should be reinforced during the playing season.
  • Take breaks. Rest periods during practice and games can reduce injuries and prevent heat illness.
  • Play safe. Strict rules against headfirst sliding (baseball and softball), and spearing (football), and checking in hockey should be enforced.
  • Stop the activity if there is pain.
  • Avoid heat injury by drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise or play; decrease or stop practices or competitions during high heat/humidity periods; wear light clothing.

Sports-Related Emotional Stress

Sadly, many coaches and players consider winning the most important aspect of sports. Therefore the pressure to win can cause significant emotional stress. For the purposes of participating in a Paleogenics® fitness program regime - to achieve increased levels of fitness - participants should judge themselves on individual effort, sportsmanship and hard work. Focus on trying hard and improving your skills rather punishing or criticizing yourself for losing a game or competition; or not being as good as someone else defeats the purpose of lifestyle fitness. The main goal should be to have fun and learn lifelong physical activity skills to improve your health & well being.

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FOOD HEALTH & SAFETY

Introducing New Foods and Beverages to Your Diet

Fruit and vegetable juices and extracts contain high levels of sugar. Get permission from your medical doctor before starting a juicing routine.

The consumption of root and bark powders should also be approved by your medical doctor prior to using.

Get the approval of your medical doctor before drinking any new types of beverages.

Strict paleo based diets exclude most grains. However, there is evidence that early humans did eat some raw grain mixtures, perhaps just not in the abundance that we consume them today. If you eat traditional breads and grains, ask your doctor about gluten-free types to see what is right for you.

Health Concerns and Medication Interactions

Carefully control your consumption of fish and shellfish due to concerns about mercury consumption and other contaminants.

Herbal products and supplements and some spices may not be safe if you have certain health issues or take medication. Older adults also may be at risk of problems from these products. Talk to your doctor before cooking with herbs and spices and before taking or using herbal products and supplements.

Dried fruits can be higher in sugar content than regular fruit so eat them in small portions, especially if you have certain medical conditions. Only use dried fruits when you are on the go to avoid eating other processed and sugary snacks. They, too, can be significant sources of sugar, which can cause weight gain.

Individuals with high blood pressure should avoid cocoa powder, chocolate, fudge, licorice, and grapefruit.

Safe Food Handling

Wash your hands and preparation surfaces often, including knives and cutting boards.

Keep raw meat separate from other foods. After cutting raw meats, thoroughly clean the surface and utensils with hot, soapy water.

Marinate meats in a covered dish in the refrigerator.

Refrigerate leftover food (or meal prep foods for the week) within 1-2 hours of cooking.

Use cooked leftovers within four days. Reheat them to 165 degrees Fahrenheit (73.9 degrees Celsius).

Raw and Undercooked Food

Consuming raw or undercooked meats, fish, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions. Cooking your food is a very effective way to reduce germs and bacteria. All meat, fish, and poultry that are consumed should be skinned, cooked, and trimmed.

Use a meat thermometer to ensure your meat is cooked to a safe temperature.

Some folks are sensitive to the nightshade family of vegetables—which includes tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplants, and potatoes—and may wish to avoid them.

Raw vegetables may not be right for everyone. Check with your medical doctor before eating uncooked vegetables.

Additional Food Safety Resources:

Food recalls and alerts, food storage, minimum cooking temperatures: https://www.foodsafety.gov/

Cooking temperatures, cleanliness, refrigeration, avoiding cross-contamination:http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/groups/consumers.html

Food handling, meat, poultry, and eggs preparation, seasonal food safety: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets

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FITNESS LEGAL DISCLAIMER

Legal Disclaimer: The information in the Paleogenics® Body Transformation Program is not intended as a substitute for the medical advice of physicians. The reader should regularly consult a physician in matters relating to his/her health and particularly with respect to any symptoms that may require diagnosis or medical attention. Consult your medical doctor before making any changes to your diet or to the way that you exercise, especially if you are undergoing treatment or taking medication for any medical condition, have food allergies, intestinal issues, have been diagnosed as diabetic or pre-diabetic, or diagnosed with cancer or any other illness or medical condition. Consult your doctor before changing your diet or engaging in any of the recommended activities in the program especially if you have an injury, are pregnant, nursing or have just had a baby. The information, opinions, recommendations, graphics, text, and any other content is for informational and educational purposes only, and use thereof is solely at your own risk. The book and its contents are not a substitute for regular professional health care and prescribed medication. The information provided is not intended to diagnose any medical condition or to replace your health care professional. Some suggested foods may interact with medications or cause side effects in individuals, especially if they have certain medical conditions. Antioxidant foods are sometimes advised against during chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Do not consume supplements, vitamins, health beverages, energy drinks, liquid drops, tinctures, or elixirs without the consent of your medical doctor. All questions and concerns regarding your physical activity, health, diet and weight should be directed to your physician. All participants in the program must follow the guidelines in the publication and on the "safety" page located on our website. By purchasing and or using the information in this publication the user agrees to maintain access to our website "safety page" to obtain important informational updates located at: www.paleogenics.com. We do not claim to be doctors, nutritionists, or dietitians. The information in this publication is merely our opinion and does not replace professional medical or nutritional advice. Discontinuing medications can have fatal effects. Those suffering from mood disorders should not discontinue any medication without full consent of a medical doctor or mental health care professional. Discontinuing the use of mood stabilizers, anti-depressants, and other psychopharmaceutical medications requires gradual tapering down to avoid rebound effects or side effects. People suffering from hormonal imbalance or mood disorders may be more sensitive to dietary changes, so any dietary modifications should be gradual if permitted by your medical doctor. Certain medications, when mixed with certain foods, may react negatively, so consult your medical doctor or mental health care professional before incorporating any new food or supplement into your diet. Our programs are being provided and/or sold with no warranties of any kind, express or implied, all of which are expressly disclaimed, including, without limitation, all warranties of merchantability or fitness for any purpose. We do not guarantee the qualities, accuracy, completeness, timeliness, appropriateness or suitability of the information provided. The creators, authors, or publishers of the program, any instructor or other person appearing in this program, any entity referenced in this program, or any person of entity associated with any type of the foregoing will not in any way be held responsible for any injuries or death; or any physical, financial or other otherwise losses, costs claims or damages of any kind or character, including the result of negligence of any kind collectively that may occur due to, or arising in any manner on connection with, the viewing or other use of the program or any of the advice contained within or other contents thereof. Like any sport involving speed, equipment, balance and environmental factors, this fitness program poses some inherent risk. The authors and publisher advise readers to take full responsibility for their safety and know their limits. Before practicing the skills described in this book, be sure that your equipment is well maintained, and do not take risks beyond your level of experience, aptitude, training, and comfort level. Only use the information and exercises contained in this program if you assume the full responsibility to use your judgment as to your physical ability, fitness, and safety. If you do not accept this responsibility, you should return the product to where you purchased it from for a full refund and or discard it. Any user of the exercise program contained in this publication or other viewer of this program fully and irrevocably assumes all risk of every kind that may result from performing the exercises shown in this program, utilizing any equipment suggested or shown in this program, following any dietary recommendations, or taking any other action in connection with the contents of this program. This program is not a substitute for consulting your physician or other applicable licensed health care practitioners or for practicing personnel judgment. Extreme care must also be must be taken in selecting and using properly maintained exercise equipment. Remember to listen to your body and to master your exercises in the pre-training phase of this program so that you feel comfortable with all the moves as you progress to the more advanced phases. Do not move to advanced phases until you have finished the proper prior phase. The creators, authors, and publishers of this program hereby expressly disclaim any and all liability for such losses, and are not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of the suggestions, preparations, or procedures discussed in this book. Should the reader have any questions concerning the appropriateness of any facts, procedures or preparations, the authors and publisher strongly suggest consulting a professional health care advisor.

IMPORTANT: If you feel pain at any point, light-headedness, or dizziness while exercising, please stop immediately and seek medical advice. The contents of this program only suggest practical additions and subtractions to your current diet. If you do not like a diet or fitness suggestion, do not do it. If you do not know how to properly and safely complete a stretch regimen or exercise or fitness activity, seek the advice of a certified fitness trainer. Complete all exercises in this program with a partner to assist you with all movements to better ensure your safety. Always start with less physical effort and work your way up to allow the body to adapt over the course of time, and help keep you free of injury.

You can cause yourself serious harm if you exercise the wrong way (there is a lot of bad information out there), and the last thing we want to see is something happen that will set you back (or worse). If you have been sedentary for an extended period of time, or you do not follow an intelligent progression, your risk of injury will increase significantly. Food Handling: Please use great caution and sanitary practices when handling food products. Refer to your health department's safe food handling guidelines. Wash your hands and surfaces thoroughly before and after handling any food product.

Children under 18 and adults over 55 are prohibited from using these programs. The persons shown in photographs on our website and in our publications, are stock photography models and are not affiliated with Paleogenics Applied Science, Inc. You (the user of this program) or any connected party agree that any and all claims for gross negligence or intentional tort shall be settled solely by confidential binding arbitration per the American Arbitration Association commercial arbitration rules. All arbitration must occur in Anne Arundel County, MD, USA, and MD law shall govern. Arbitration fees and costs shall be split equally, and you are solely responsible for your own lawyer fees.

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COOKBOOK LEGAL DISCLAIMER

Legal Disclaimer: The information provided in the Paleogenics® Fitness Cookbook & Snack Guide is not intended as a substitute for the medical advice of physicians. The reader should regularly consult a physician in matters relating to his/her health and particularly with respect to any symptoms that may require diagnosis or medical attention. Consult your medical doctor before making any changes to your diet or to the way that you exercise, especially if you are undergoing treatment or taking medication for any medical condition, have food allergies, intestinal issues, have been diagnosed as diabetic or pre-diabetic, or diagnosed with cancer or any other illness or medical condition. Consult your doctor before changing your diet or engaging in any of the recommended activities in this book especially if you have an injury, are pregnant, nursing or have just had a baby. The information, opinions, recommendations, graphics, text, and any other content is for informational and educational purposes only, and use thereof is solely at your own risk. This book and its contents are not a substitute for regular professional health care and prescribed medication. The information provided is not intended to diagnose any medical condition or to replace your health care professional. Some suggested foods may interact with medications or cause side effects in individuals, especially if they have certain medical conditions. Antioxidant foods are sometimes advised against during chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Do not consume supplements, vitamins, health beverages, energy drinks, liquid drops, tinctures, or elixirs without the consent of your medical doctor. All questions and concerns regarding your diet, physical activity, health, and weight should be directed to your physician. All participants in this publication must follow the guidelines in this publication and on the "safety" page located on our website. By purchasing and or using the information in this publication the user agrees to maintain access to our website "safety page" to obtain important informational updates located at: www.paleogenics.com.

We do not claim to be doctors, nutritionists or dietitians. The information in this fitness cook book & snack guide is merely our personal opinion and does not replace professional medical or nutritional advise. Discontinuing medications can have fatal effects. Those suffering from mood disorders should not discontinue any medication without full consent of a medical doctor or mental health care professional. Discontinuing the use of mood stabilizers, anti-depressants, and other psychopharmaceutical medications requires gradual tapering down to avoid rebound effects or side effects. People suffering from hormonal imbalance or mood disorders may be more sensitive to dietary changes, so any dietary modifications should be gradual if permitted by your medical doctor. Certain medications, when mixed with certain foods, may react negatively, so consult your medical doctor or mental health care professional before incorporating any new food or supplement into your diet. This publication is being provided and/or sold with no warranties of any kind, express or implied, all of which are expressly disclaimed, including, without limitation, all warranties of merchantability or fitness for any purpose. We do not guarantee the qualities, accuracy, completeness, timeliness, appropriateness or suitability of the information provided. The creators, authors, or publishers of this publication, any instructor or other person appearing in this publication, any entity referenced in this publication, or any person of entity associated with any type of the foregoing will not in any way be held responsible for any injuries or death; or any physical, financial or other otherwise losses, costs claims or damages of any kind or character, including the result of negligence of any kind collectively that may occur due to, or arising in any manner on connection with, the viewing or other use of this publication or any of the advice contained within or other contents thereof.

The authors and publisher advise readers to take full responsibility for their safety and know their limits. Before practicing the cooking suggestions and techniques described in this book, be sure that your equipment is well maintained, and do not take risks beyond your level of experience, aptitude, training, and comfort level. Only use the information contained in this publication if you assume the full responsibility to use your judgment. If you do not accept this responsibility, you should return the product to where you purchased it from for a full refund and or discard it. Any user of the suggestions contained in this publication or other viewer of this publication fully and irrevocably assumes all risk of every kind that may result from performing the cooking recommendations shown in this publication, utilizing any equipment suggested or shown in this publication, following any dietary recommendations, or taking any other action in connection with the contents of this publication. This publication is not a substitute for consulting your physician or other applicable licensed health care practitioners or for practicing personnel judgment. Extreme care must also be must be taken in selecting and using properly maintained cooking equipment. The creators, authors, and publishers of this publication hereby expressly disclaim any and all liability for such losses, and are not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of the suggestions, preparations, or procedures discussed in this publication. Should the reader have any questions concerning the appropriateness of any facts, procedures or preparations, the authors and publisher strongly suggest consulting a professional health care advisor.

IMPORTANT: We have used our best efforts in preparing the Paleogenics® Fitness Cookbook, and the information is provided "as is." We make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of the cookbook and we specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.

All material in the Paleogenics® Fitness Cookbook is provided for information only and may not be construed as medical advice or instruction. No action or inaction should be taken based solely on the contents of this information; instead, readers should consult appropriate health professionals on any matter relating to their health and well- being.

Food Handling: Please use great caution and sanitary practices when handling food products. Refer to your health department's safe food handling guidelines. Wash your hands and surfaces thoroughly before and after handling any food product.

The cooking instructions and directions in the Paleogenics® Fitness Cookbook are offered as guidelines only. Use your best judgment and proper discretion when preparing or consuming any food. We do not advise eating any eggs, meat, or seafood that has not been properly handled or cooked. Eating something undercooked or raw is to be done at your own discretion.

You (the user of this publication) or any connected party agree that any and all claims for gross negligence or intentional tort shall be settled solely by confidential binding arbitration per the American Arbitration Association commercial arbitration rules. All arbitration must occur in Anne Arundel County, MD, USA, and MD law shall govern. Arbitration fees and costs shall be split equally, and you are solely responsible for your own lawyer fees.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Products sold on this site are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Do not make any changes to your diet or to the way that you exercise without the approval of your medical doctor.

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